CFD Robot Trading in 2020 Best CFD Trading Robot Software

Insider Binary Bot Review 2015 - Is Insider Binary Bot SCAM Or LEGIT? Best Binary Options Trading Robot. The Truth About Insider Binary Bot By James Beckett Review

Insider Binary Bot Review 2015 - INSIDER BINARY BOT?? Learn the Secrets about Insider Binary Bot in this Insider Binary Bot review! So What is Insider Binary Bot Software all about? Does Insider Binary Bot Actually Work? Is Insider Binary Bot scam or does it really work?
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Insider Binary Bot Description:
Name: Insider Binary Bot
Niche: Binary Options.
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Insider Binary Bot Binary Options Trading Method
Base the Insider Binary Bot trading strategy. After you see it working, you can start to implement your strategy with regular sized lots. This technique will certainly settle over time. Every Forex binary options trader must pick an account type that is in accordance with their needs and expectations. A larger account does not suggest a bigger revenue potential so it is a terrific concept to begin small and quickly add to your account as your returns increase based on the winning trading selections the software makes.
Binary Options Trading
To help you trade binary options properly, it is very important to have an understanding behind the fundamentals of Binary Options Trading. Currency Trading, or foreign exchange, is based upon the viewed value of 2 currencies pairs to one another, and is impacted by the political stability of the country, inflation and interest rates among other things. Keep this in mind as you trade and learn more about binary options to optimize your learning experience.
Insider Binary Bot Summary
In summary, there are some apparent ideas that have been tested in time, as well as some newer strategies. that you may not have thought about. Ideally, as long as you follow exactly what we recommend in this article you can either get going with trading with Insider Binary Bot or enhance on what you have currently done.
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If you’re worrying about not having any previous experience trading online, then STOP now. Once you are registered with Insider Binary Bot, they provide all the help you will ever need. When I registered I had never traded online before and didn’t have the slightest clue what I was doing. Insider Binary Bot provided me with video tutorials, one on one support and first hand examples of the type of work that’s involved.
Anyway enough of me going on and on about my success story, its time you made yours.
There Is Only A Very Limited Spaces Available
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submitted by HibbittsKast51 to HibbittsKast [link] [comments]

Best Binary Options Robot-Binary Robot Auto Trading Software

Best Binary Options Robot-Binary Robot Auto Trading Software submitted by Evileeina to u/Evileeina [link] [comments]

Some Game Balance Thoughts from an Eve Veteran

Hi everyone,
I've been passionate about sandbox games and how they are designed into a functioning coherent environment. I developed most of this passion in Eve and served as a CSM last year. I'm hopeful that DU will be the future of sandbox sci-fi games. I wanted to note down how I think NQ can better some of the game's most important aspects. Some of their staff probably read here too. The forums have this "one idea per thread" rule, so I decided to put them here. Here are some problems, and how I would solve them.
PvP
1) Cube Meta: Need viability for non-cubes.
2) Small vs Big Ships: Need drastic balance.
3) Non-Consensual PvP:
The current non-consensual PvP is very binary and unsustainable. If you can find some people careless enough to go in a direct path between two planets with no radars, you kill them. People will wake up (or they already did) to this very fast, plus warp drives will become abundant, and pretty soon no such PvP will be possible. Meanwhile, if you are a new player with no knowledge and you get caught to pirates like this, you basically have zero options to protect yourself.
Economy
1) There is no need to trade.
2) Resource Hexes are too disposable.
3) No mining robots please.
Overall I have great hopes but also concerns about the game. One major concern/test was whether the server tech will hold. It has improved a lot and that's great news for NQ. The next concern is whether NQ is spread too thin. The game's development was probably too early to commit to a non-wipe environment, and NQ might be underestimating how much it lacks vs an actually functioning ecosystem. Not to mention customer support is pretty nonexistent (god forbid you have a problem that's beyond the Discord staff's abilities). People will get bored of cool looking handcrafted ships pretty fast unless they have meaningful stuff to do in them very soon.
Let's see how things develop.
o7
submitted by Olmeca_Gold to DualUniverse [link] [comments]

[FO4] After loading a save during combat, cannot save at all anymore, not sure which mod is causing it

For some reason, if I die during combat and load a save up from there, all the save options will be greyed out for the rest of the time I play, and things like exit auto saves or saving on waits will also not work. I'm not sure what mod is causing it. Heres my list: Fallout4.esm
DLCRobot.esm
DLCworkshop01.esm
DLCCoast.esm
DLCworkshop02.esm
DLCworkshop03.esm
DLCNukaWorld.esm
Homemaker.esm
Overlays.esm
Quick_Modification_Weapon_by_tooun.esl
SettlementKeywords.esm
VotWMaster.esm
VotWSpecialVideos.esl
Unofficial Fallout 4 Patch.esp
PowerArmorIntercomVoice_Balanced.esl
ArmorKeywords.esm
PANPC.esm
WorkshopFramework.esm
SS2.esm
Robot Home Defence.esm
TrueStormsFO4.esm
SavrenXFoodAndFoodware.esp
Consistent Power Armor Overhaul.esp
CraftableAmmo.esp
CraftableAmmo_plus.esp
AA_CommonwealthConifersREDUX_SEASONS.esp
AES_Renovated Furniture.esp
UltraInteriorLighting.esp
PlayerComments.esp
UnbogusFallout.esp
PiperCaitCurieDialogueOverhaul.esp
BostonFPSFixAIO.esp
SOTS.esp Armorsmith Extended.esp
AEWS.esp
Binary Speech Checks V.4 Hard.esp
dD-Enhanced Blood Basic.esp
EasyHacking.esp
Eli_Crafting Shiz 9000.esp
UnbogusFalloutVIS.esp
Extended weapon mods.esp
FAR.esp
Faster Terminal Displays (20x).esp
FlaconOil_BA2_2K_Part3.esp
NAC.esp
GR123 West Tek Tactical Gloves.esp
Homemaker - Streetlights Use Passive Power.esp
Homemaker - Unlocked Institute Objects.esp
jDS__HP_Skull_Mask.esp
LooksMenu.esp
LoweredSprintAPDrain.esp
Metro Gas Masks.esp
Multiple Floors Sandboxing.esp
RadiantBirdsv05.esp
Reverb and Ambiance Overhaul.esp
TrueStormsFO4-FarHarbor.esp
NAC-FH.esp
NAC-NW.esp
Nexus_PMC.esp
OCDecorator.esp
OCDecorator - No Experience.esp
OCDecoratorDLC.esp
OCDispenser.esp
Passive Camera Shake - Reduced.esp
Passthrough.esp
RAW INPUT.esp
Realistic Roads - Black Asphalt.esp
REAPER.esp
RightHandedHuntingRifle.esp
SettleObjExpandPack.esp
SolarPower.esp
TFRangerGear.esp
TrueGrass.esp
USP .45_by_tooun.esp
WestTekTacticalOptics.esp
WET.esp
WheelMenu.esp
XM2010_SniperRifle_by_tooun.esp
WET NAC Patch.esp
Vivid Fallout - All in One - Best Choice.esp
UnbogusFallout_LessXP25.esp
3DNPC_FO4.esp
OutcastsAndRemnants.esp
FALLOUT4WT.esp
Mercenary.esp
RaiderOverhaul.esp
Unique NPCs.esp
Unique NPCs - Creatures and Monsters.esp
GoodneighborExpanded.esp
SuperMutantRedux.esp
DeadlierDeathclaws.esp
Brotherhood Power Armor Overhaul.esp
More Power Armour Mods.esp
TrainBar.esp
America Rising - A Tale of the Enclave.esp
Eli_Armour_Compendium.esp
Some Assembly Required.esp
CBBE.esp
Colt6520.esp
def_inv_scrap_en.esp
D.E.C.A.Y.esp
Ferals After Dark.esp
Galac-TactREDUX.esp
Glowing Animals Emit Light.esp
LOST Audio Tweaks.esp
NoLoopingWeaponSounds.esp
SuperMutantRedux VIS Patch.esp
SuperMutantRedux_ArmorSmithExtended.esp
Unique NPCs - Creatures and Monsters_SMR_AE.esp
ChaChingTradeSilentXP.esp
Synth Overhaul.esp
AzarPonytailHairstyles.esp
BetterSettlers.esp
W.A.T.Minutemen.esp
Eli_Faction Housing Overhaul - Prydwen.esp
The Sanctuary Bridge.esp
USAF_Silo_Beta.esp
ProjectHelljumper.esp
3DNPC_FO4Settler.esp
MK18.esp
SubmersiblePowerArmorRedux.esp
Wana_SA58.esp
FO4 NPCs Travel.esp
AKMnv.esp
AK400.esp
AkaWaterWorld.esp
AtomicRadio.esp
AT - Atomic Radio RAO Patch.esp
BasementLiving.esp
DOOMPumpShotgun.esp
HuntingRevolver.esp
MP7.esp
GIAT_FAMAS.esp
HK_MP5.esp
SSEX.esp
SalvageBeacons.esp
Realistic Death Physics - ALL DLC.esp
RadioReverbFix.esp
Project Reality Footsteps FO4.esp
NoTwigs.esp
McMillanCS5.esp
AT - True Storms and RAO Patch.esp
ImmersiveVendors.esp
DT_GunnerOutfitPack.esp
GruffyddsSignsAndPosters.esp
G36Complex.esp
FlaconOil_BA2_2K_Part2.esp
FlaconOil_BA2_1K_Part1.esp
Fallout Suite.esp
Factor.esp
EPO.esp
EasyLockpicking.esp
CF_AtomicWarlord.esp
chem redux.esp
AnimChemRedux.esp
UnbogusPatch_AnimChemRedux.esp
Ambient Wasteland.esp
AlternateSettlements.esp
P90.esp
P90NPC.esp
My_Minutemen.esp
Unique NPCs FarHarbor.esp
Unique NPCs_SpecialSettlers_Robots_Synths.esp
Unique_NPCs_SuperMutantRedux.esp
AnS Wearable Backpacks and Pouches.esp
BossChestsHaveLegendaries.esp
BrighterSettlementLights_LongAndSoft.esp
Companion Infinite Ammo.esp
CROSS_GoreCrits.esp
CROSS_GoreCrits_FarHarborPatch.esp
DV-Very Durable Vertibirds.esp
FO4Hotkeys.esp
FO4LaserBolts.esp
KSHairdos.esp
LongerPowerLines3x.esp
LovingPiper-TrueReporterSE.esp
More Where That Came From Diamond City.esp
PA-Quick Animations.esp
Tactical Flashlights.esp
Tactical Flashlights - Settings.esp
The Eyes Of Beauty.esp
TrueReporter.esp
TrueStormsFO4-FarHarborExtraRads.esp
TrueStormsFO4-GlowingSeaExtraRads.esp
WAYN_CompanionTracking.esp
WestTekTacticalOptics-AWKCR.esp
BetterSettlersCCAPack2.0.esp
DCGuardOutfitOverride.esp
Insignificant Object Remover.esp
UnbogusPatch_DOOMPumpShotgun.esp
NoBlurOnHit.esp
PAMAP.esp
CPAO - PAMAP 2.0 Patch.esp
More Power Armour Mods - Automatron.esp
Pip-Boy Flashlight.esp
StartMeUp.esp
submitted by CreamGravyPCMR to FalloutMods [link] [comments]

Binary Options: A Sickening Scam

The Art of a Binary Options Scam

Binary options, fraudulent “trading products” that are designed to part prospective investors from their money are very different from real options. In essence, they are simply a bet that the price of a particular asset will rise in a given time frame. If you win the gamble, the company is supposed to pay a fixed payout, within the 70%-95% range. If you lose, however, you not only lose the “payout” but the initial investment as well.
If this was merely the case this would fall under the category of gambling, something that millions upon millions of individuals do recreationally. However, that is primarily not the case. With almost all binary options brokers you are “trading” against the broker and not the market. The broker wants you to lose, or else the company would not make a profit. Even if the broker pays out your winnings he can easily govern your profit with payout conditions. This means that even if you have a winning formula, the company will just decrease the payout, ensuring you ultimately lose in the long term.

There is more to the scam

That, unfortunately, is not where it ends. Numerous “brokers” are notorious for spreading fictitious stories about their clientele making gigantic profits with trading robots. Almost all of them manipulate their price curves to prevent you from winning. What’s worse is even if you do win, many of them refuse to pay out, and ultimately drop off the face of the earth (with your money).
Now clients are left in with a major dilemma. To whom do they turn? To the police? To regulators? The answer to these questions is that it depends. Most of these binary options brokers are not regulated and are located offshore, allowing them to do what they want. Often in their terms and conditions, they concoct various rules that ensure they keep your money once they have it. When it comes to regulators such as ASIC or the FCA they are relatively useless as they cannot shut down the actual binary options websites and to make it even worse search engines such as Google allow these websites to appear in their search content.

Shouldn’t the banks put a stop to this?

Yes, they should. However, the banks, which should be the number one line of defense against these scams either do not know the extent of the problem or are turning a blind eye to their nefarious activities. Additionally, in order to process credit card, debit card payments most of the binary options brokers have registered a small company in an E.U. country.

Recovery scams

Unfortunately, fraud encourages more fraud. Various individuals targeted U.S. citizens who were swindled by the now-defunct brokerage, Banc de Binary, and a few other binary options companies that were being sued by the SEC or the CFTC (Commodity Futures Trading Commission). They impersonated SEC officials as part of an advanced-fee fraud scheme in which they deceived victims into forwarding them money. Approximately 95 individuals were targeted by this despicable scheme and 25 of them sent 235 thousand dollars in total to these swindlers.
What to Do if You Have Been Scammed
If you have fallen victim to a cryptocurrency scam, send a complaint to at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]), and we will do our very best to get into contact with you as soon as we can to initiate your funds recovery process.
submitted by asaston to u/asaston [link] [comments]

Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers

Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers

Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers
We have compared the best regulated binary options brokers and platforms in May 2020 and created this top list. Every binary options company here has been personally reviewed by us to help you find the best binary options platform for both beginners and experts. The broker comparison list below shows which binary trading sites came out on top based on different criteria.
You can put different trading signals into consideration such as using payout (maximum returns), minimum deposit, bonus offers, or if the operator is regulated or not. You can also read full reviews of each broker, helping you make the best choice. This review is to ensure traders don't lose money in their trading account.
How to Compare Brokers and Platforms
In order to trade binary options, you need to engage the services of a binary options broker that accepts clients from your country e.g. check US trade requirements if you are in the United States. Here at bitcoinbinaryoptionsreview.com, we have provided all the best comparison factors that will help you select which trading broker to open an account with. We have also looked at our most popular or frequently asked questions, and have noted that these are important factors when traders are comparing different brokers:
  1. What is the Minimum Deposit? (These range from $5 or $10 up to $250)
  2. Are they regulated or licensed, and with which regulator?
  3. Can I open a Demo Account?
  4. Is there a signals service, and is it free?
  5. Can I trade on my mobile phone and is there a mobile app?
  6. Is there a Bonus available for new trader accounts? What are the Terms and
  7. conditions?
  8. Who has the best binary trading platform? Do you need high detail charts with technical analysis indicators?
  9. Which broker has the best asset lists? Do they offer forex, cryptocurrency, commodities, indices, and stocks – and how many of each?
  10. Which broker has the largest range of expiry times (30 seconds, 60 seconds, end of the day, long term, etc?)
  11. How much is the minimum trade size or amount?
  12. What types of options are available? (Touch, Ladder, Boundary, Pairs, etc)
  13. Additional Tools – Like Early closure or Metatrader 4 (Mt4) plugin or integration
  14. Do they operate a Robot or offer automated trading software?
  15. What is Customer Service like? Do they offer telephone, email and live chat customer support – and in which countries? Do they list direct contact details?
  16. Who has the best payouts or maximum returns? Check the markets you will trade.
The Regulated Binary Brokers
Regulation and licensing is a key factor when judging the best broker. Unregulated brokers are not always scams, or untrustworthy, but it does mean a trader must do more ‘due diligence’ before trading with them. A regulated broker is the safest option.
Regulators - Leading regulatory bodies include:
  • CySec – The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (Cyprus and the EU)
  • FCA – Financial Conduct Authority (UK)
  • CFTC – Commodity Futures Trading Commission (US)
  • FSB – Financial Services Board (South Africa)
  • ASIC – Australia Securities and Investment Commission
There are other regulators in addition to the above, and in some cases, brokers will be regulated by more than one organization. This is becoming more common in Europe where binary options are coming under increased scrutiny. Reputable, premier brands will have regulation of some sort.
Regulation is there to protect traders, to ensure their money is correctly held and to give them a path to take in the event of a dispute. It should therefore be an important consideration when choosing a trading partner.
Bonuses - Both sign up bonuses and demo accounts are used to attract new clients. Bonuses are often a deposit match, a one-off payment, or risk-free trade. Whatever the form of a bonus, there are terms and conditions that need to be read.
It is worth taking the time to understand those terms before signing up or clicking accept on a bonus offer. If the terms are not to your liking then the bonus loses any attraction and that broker may not be the best choice. Some bonus terms tie in your initial deposit too. It is worth reading T&Cs before agreeing to any bonus, and worth noting that many brokers will give you the option to ‘opt-out’ of taking a bonus.
Using a bonus effectively is harder than it sounds. If considering taking up one of these offers, think about whether, and how, it might affect your trading. One common issue is that turnover requirements within the terms, often cause traders to ‘over-trade’. If the bonus does not suit you, turn it down.
How to Find the Right Broker
But how do you find a good broker? Well, that’s where BitcoinBinaryOptionsReview.com comes in. We assess and evaluate binary options brokers so that traders know exactly what to expect when signing up with them. Our financial experts have more than 20 years of experience in the financial business and have reviewed dozens of brokers.
Being former traders ourselves, we know precisely what you need. That’s why we’ll do our best to provide our readers with the most accurate information. We are one of the leading websites in this area of expertise, with very detailed and thorough analyses of every broker we encounter. You will notice that each aspect of any broker’s offer has a separate article about it, which just goes to show you how seriously we approach each company. This website is your best source of information about binary options brokers and one of your best tools in determining which one of them you want as your link to the binary options market.
Why Use a Binary Options Trading Review?
So, why is all this relevant? As you may already know, it is difficult to fully control things that take place online. There are people who only pose as binary options brokers in order to scam you and disappear with your money. True, most of the brokers we encounter turn out to be legit, but why take unnecessary risks?
Just let us do our job and then check out the results before making any major decisions. All our investigations regarding brokers’ reliability can be seen if you click on our Scam Tab, so give it a go and see how we operate. More detailed scam reports than these are simply impossible to find. However, the most important part of this website can be found if you go to our Brokers Tab.
There you can find extensive analyses of numerous binary options brokers irrespective of your trading strategy. Each company is represented with an all-encompassing review and several other articles dealing with various aspects of their offer. A list containing the very best choices will appear on your screen as you enter our website whose intuitive design will allow you to access all the most important information in real-time.
We will explain minimum deposits, money withdrawals, bonuses, trading platforms, and many more topics down to the smallest detail. Rest assured, this amount of high-quality content dedicated exclusively to trading cannot be found anywhere else. Therefore, visiting us before making any important decisions regarding this type of trading is the best thing to do.
CONCLUSION: Stay ahead of the market, and recover from all kinds of binary options trading loss, including market losses in bitcoin, cryptocurrency, and forex markets too. Send your request via email to - [email protected]
submitted by Babyelijah to u/Babyelijah [link] [comments]

[Table] Asteroid Day AMA – We’re engineers and scientists working on a mission that could, one day, help save humankind from asteroid extinction. Ask us anything!

Source
There are several people answering: Paolo Martino is PM, Marco Micheli is MM, Heli Greus is HG, Detlef Koschny is DVK, and Aidan Cowley is AC.
Questions Answers
Can we really detect any asteroids in space with accuracy and do we have any real means of destroying it? Yes, we can detect new asteroids when they are still in space. Every night dozens of new asteroids are found, including a few that can come close to the Earth.
Regarding the second part of the question, the goal would be to deflect them more than destroy them, and it is technologically possible. The Hera/DART mission currently being developed by ESA and NASA will demonstrate exactly this capability.
MM
I always wanted to ask: what is worse for life on Earth - to be hit by a single coalesced asteroid chunk, or to be hit by a multiple smaller pieces of exploded asteroid, aka disrupted rubble pile scenario? DVK: This is difficult to answer. If the rubble is small (centimetres to meters) it is better to have lots of small ones – they’d create nice bright meteors. If the rubble pieces are tens of meters it doesn’t help.
Let’s say that hypothetically, an asteroid the size of Rhode Island is coming at us, it will be a direct hit - you’ve had the resources and funding you need, your plan is fully in place, everything you’ve wanted you got. The asteroid will hit in 10 years, what do you do? DVK: I had to look up how big Rhode Island is – a bit larger than the German Bundesland ‘Saarland’. Ok – this would correspond to an object about 60 km in diameter, right? That’s quite big – we would need a lot of rocket launches, this would be extremely difficult. I would pray. The good news is that we are quite convinced that we know all objects larger than just a few kilometers which come close to our planet. None of them is on a collision course, so we are safe.
the below is a reply to the above
Why are you quite convinced that you know all object of that size? And what is your approach in finding new celestial bodies? DVK: There was a scientific study done over a few years (published in Icarus 2018, search for Granvik) where they modelled how many objects there are out there. They compared this to the observations we have with the telescopic surveys. This gives us the expected numbers shown here on our infographic: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
There are additional studies to estimate the ‘completeness’ – and we think that we know everything above roughly a few km in size.
To find new objects, we use survey telescopes that scan the night sky every night. The two major ones are Catalina and Pan-STARRS, funded by NASA. ESA is developing the so-called Flyeye telescope to add to this effort https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2017/02/Flyeye_telescope.
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Thanks for the answer, that's really interesting! It's also funny that the fist Flyeye deployed is in Sicily, at less than 100km from me, I really had no idea DVK: Indeed, that's cool. Maybe you can go and visit it one day.
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What about Interstellar objects however, like Oumuamua? DVK: The two that we have seen - 'Oumuamua and comet Borisov - were much smaller than the Saarland (or Rhode Island ;-) - not sure about Borisov, but 'Oumuamua was a few hundred meters in size. So while they could indeed come as a complete surprise, they are so rare that I wouldn't worry.
Would the public be informed if an impending asteroid event were to happen? And, how would the extinction play out? Bunch of people crushed to death, knocked off our orbit, dust clouds forever? DVK: We do not keep things secret – all our info is at the web page http://neo.ssa.esa.int. The ‘risky’ objects are in the ‘risk page’. We also put info on really close approaches there. It would also be very difficult to keep things ‘under cover’ – there are many high-quality amateur astronomers out there that would notice.
In 2029 asteroid Apophis will fly really close to Earth, even closer than geostationary satellites. Can we use some of those satellites to observe the asteroid? Is it possible to launch very cheap cube sats to flyby Apophis in 2029? DVK: Yes an Apophis mission during the flyby in 2029 would be really nice. We even had a special session on that topic at the last Planetary Defense Conference in 2019, and indeed CubeSats were mentioned. This would be a nice university project – get me a close-up of the asteroid with the Earth in the background!
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So you’re saying it was discussed and shelved? In the conference we just presented ideas. To make them happen needs funding - in the case of ESA the support of our member countries. But having something presented at a conference is the first step. One of the results of the conference was a statement to space agencies to consider embarking on such a mission. See here: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/336356/336472/PDC_2019_Summary_Report_FINAL_FINAL.pdf/341b9451-0ce8-f338-5d68-714a0aada29b?t=1569333739470
Go to the section 'resolutions'. This is now a statement that scientists can use to present to their funding agencies, demonstrating that it's not just their own idea.
Thanks for doing this AMA! Did we know the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 (the one which had some great videos on social media) was coming? Ig not, how comes? Also, as a little side one, have there been any fatalities from impact events in the past 20 years? Unfortunately, the Chelyabinsk object was not seen in advance, because it came from the direction of the Sun where ground-based telescopes cannot look.
No known fatalities from impacts have happened in the past 20 years, although the Chelyabinsk event did cause many injuries, fortunately mostly minor.
MM
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How often do impacts from that direction happen, compared to impacts from visible trajectories? In terms of fraction of the sky, the area that cannot be easily scanned from the ground is roughly a circle with a radius of 40°-50° around the current position of the Sun, corresponding to ~15% of the total sky. However, there is a slight enhancement of objects coming from that direction, therefore the fraction of objects that may be missed when heading towards us is a bit higher.
However, this applies only when detecting an asteroid in its "final plunge" towards the Earth. Larger asteroids can be spotted many orbits earlier, when they are farther away and visible in the night side of the sky. Their orbits can then be determined and their possible impacts predicted even years or decades in advance.
MM
There must be a trade-off when targeting asteroids as they get closer to Earth, is there a rule of thumb at what the best time is to reach them, in terms of launch time versus time to reach the asteroid and then distance from Earth? DVK: Take e.g. a ‘kinetic impactor’ mission, like what DART and Hera are testing. Since we only change the velocity of the asteroid slightly, we need to hit the object early enough so that the object has time to move away from it’s collision course. Finding out when it is possible to launch requires simulations done by our mission analysis team. They take the strength of the launcher into account, also the available fuel for course corrections, and other things. Normally each asteroid has its own best scenario.
Do you also look at protecting the moon from asteroids? Would an impact of a large enough scale potentially have major impacts on the earth? DVK: There are programmes that monitor the Moon and look for flashes from impacting small asteroids (or meteoroids) - https://neliota.astro.noa.g or the Spanish MIDAS project. We use the data to improve our knowledge about these objects. These programmes just look at what is happening now.
For now we would not do anything if we predicted a lunar impact. I guess this will change once we have a lunar base in place.
Why aren't there an international organisation comprised of countries focused on the asteroid defence? Imagine like the organisation with multi-billion $ budget and program of action on funding new telescopes, asteroid exploration mission, plans for detection of potentially dangerous NEA, protocols on action after the detection - all international, with heads of states discussing these problems? DVK: There are international entities in place, mandated by the UN: The International Asteroid Warning Network (http://www.iawn.net) and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (http://www.smpag.net). These groups advise the United Nations. That is exactly where we come up with plans and protocols on action. But: They don’t have budget – that needs to come from elsewhere. I am expecting that if we have a real threat, we would get the budget. Right now, we don’t have a multi-billion budget.
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There is no actual risk of any sizable asteroids hitting earth in the foreseeable future. Any preparation for it would just be a waste of money. DVK: Indeed, as mentioned earlier, we do not expect a large object to hit is in the near future. We are mainly worried about those in the size range of 20 m to 40 m, which happen on average every few tens of years to hundreds of years. And where we only know a percent of them or even less.
President Obama wanted to send a crewed spacecraft to an asteroid - in your opinion is this something that should still be done in the future, would there be any usefulness in having a human being walk/float on an asteroid's surface? DVK: It would definitely be cool. I would maybe even volunteer to go. Our current missions to asteroids are all robotic, the main reason is that it is much cheaper (but still expensive) to get the same science. But humans will expand further into space, I am sure. If we want to test human exploration activities, doing this at an asteroid would be easier than landing on a planet.
this is another reply Yes, but I am slightly biased by the fact that I work at the European astronaut centre ;) There exist many similarities to what we currently do for EVA (extra vehicular activities) operations on the International Space Station versus how we would 'float' around an asteroid. Slightly biased again, but using such a mission to test exploration technologies would definitely still have value. Thanks Obama! - AC
I've heard that some asteroids contains large amounts of iron. Is there a possibility that we might have "space mines" in the far away future, if our own supply if iron runs out? Yes, this is a topic in the field known as space mining, part of what we call Space Resources. In fact, learning how we can process material we might find on asteroids or other planetary bodies is increasingly important, as it opens up the opportunities for sustainable exploration and commercialization. Its a technology we need to master, and asteroids can be a great target for testing how we can create space mines :) - AC
By how much is DART expected to deflect Didymos? Do we have any indication of the largest size of an asteroid we could potentially deflect? PM: Didymos is a binary asteroid, consisting of a main asteroid Didymos A (~700m) and a smaller asteroid Didymos B (~150m) orbiting around A with a ~12 hours period. DART is expected to impact Didymos B and change its orbital period w.r.t. Didymos A of ~1%. (8 mins)
The size of Didymos B is the most representative of a potential threat to Earth (the highest combination of probability and consequence of impacts), meaning smaller asteroids hit the Earth more often but have less severe consequences, larger asteroids can have catastrophic consequences but their probability of hitting the earth is very very low.
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Why is there less probability of larger asteroids hitting earth? DVK: There are less large objects out there. The smaller they are, the more there are.
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Is there any chance that your experiment will backfire and send the asteroid towards earth? PM: Not at all, or we would not do that :) Actually Dimorphos (the Didymos "moon") will not even leave its orbit around Didymos. It will just slightly change its speed.
I'm sure you've been asked this many times but how realistic is the plot of Armageddon? How likely is it that our fate as a species will rely on (either) Bruce Willis / deep sea oil drillers? Taking into consideration that Bruce Willis is now 65 and by the time HERA is launched he will be 69, I do not think that we can rely on him this time (although I liked the movie).
HERA will investigate what method we could use to deflect asteroid and maybe the results will show that we indeed need to call the deep sea oil drillers.
HG
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So then would it be easier to train oil drillers to become astronauts, or to train astronauts to be oil drillers? I do not know which one would be easier since I have no training/experience of deep see oil drilling nor becoming an astronaut, but as long as the ones that would go to asteroid have the sufficient skills and training (even Bruce Willis), I would be happy.
HG
If budget was no object, which asteroid would you most like to send a mission to? Nice question! For me, I'd be looking at an asteroid we know something about, since I would be interested in using it for testing how we could extract resources from it. So for me, I would choose Itokawa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa), which was visited by Hayabusa spacecraft. So we already have some solid prospecting carried out for this 'roid! - AC
this is another reply Not sure if it counts as an asteroid, but Detlef and myself would probably choose ʻOumuamua, the first discovered interstellar object.
MM
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Do we even have the capability to catch up to something like that screaming through our solar system? That thing has to have a heck of a velocity to just barrel almost straight through like that. DVK: Correct, that would be a real challenge. We are preparing for a mission called 'Comet Interceptor' that is meant to fly to an interstellar object or at least a fresh comet - but it will not catch up with it, it will only perform a short flyby.
https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/ESA_s_new_mission_to_intercept_a_comet
After proving to be able to land on one, could an asteroid serve as a viable means to transport goods and or humans throughout the solar system when the orbit of said asteroid proves beneficial. While it is probably quite problematic to land the payload, it could save fuel or am I mistaken? Neat idea! Wonder if anyone has done the maths on the amount of fuel you would need/save vs certain targets. - AC
PM: To further complement, the saving is quite marginal indeed because in order to land (softly) on the asteroid you actually need to get into the very same orbit of that asteroid . At that point your orbit remains the same whether you are on the asteroid or not..
can the current anti-ballistic missiles systems intercept a terminal phase earth strike asteroid? or it is better to know beforehand and launch an impacting vehicle into space? DVK: While I do see presentations on nuclear explosions to deflect asteroids at our professional meetings, I have not seen anybody yet studying how we could use existing missile systems. So it's hard to judge whether existing missiles would do the job. But in general, it is better to know as early as possible about a possible impact and deflect it as early as possible. This will minimize the needed effort.
How much are we prepared against asteroid impacts at this moment? DVK: 42… :-) Seriously – I am not sure how to quantify ‘preparedness’. We have international working groups in place, mentioned earlier (search for IAWN, SMPAG). We have a Planetary Defence Office at ESA, a Planetary Defense Office at NASA (who spots the difference?), search the sky for asteroids, build space missions… Still we could be doing more. More telescopes to find the object, a space-based telescope to discover those that come from the direction of the Sun. Different test missions would be useful, … So there is always more we could do.
Have you got any data on the NEO coverage? Is there estimations on the percentage of NEOs we have detected and are tracking? How can we improve the coverage? How many times have asteroids been able to enter earths atmosphere without being detected beforehand? Here’s our recently updated infographics with the fraction of undiscovered NEOs for each size range: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
As expected, we are now nearly complete for the large ones, while many of the smaller ones are still unknown.
In order to improve coverage, we need both to continue the current approach, centered on ground-based telescopes, and probably also launch dedicated telescopes to space, to look at the fraction of the sky that cannot be easily observed from the ground (e.g., towards the Sun).
Regarding the last part of your question, small asteroids enter the Earth atmosphere very often (the infographics above gives you some numbers), while larger ones are much rarer.
In the recent past, the largest one to enter our atmosphere was about 20 meters in diameter, and it caused the Chelyabinsk event in 2013. It could not be detected in advance because it came from the direction of the Sun.
We have however detected a few small ones before impact. The first happened in 2008, when a ~4-meter asteroid was found to be on a collision course less than a day before impact, it was predicted to fall in Northern Sudan, and then actually observed falling precisely where (and when) expected.
MM
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DVK: And to add what MM said - Check out http://neo.ssa.esa.int. There is a ‘discovery statistics’ section which provides some of the info you asked about. NASA is providing similar information here https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/. To see the sky which is currently covered by the survey telescopes, you need to service of the Minor Planet Center which we all work together with: http://www.minorplanetcenter.org, ‘observers’, ‘sky coverage’. That is a tool we use to plan where we look with our telescopes, so it is a more technical page.
Are there any automatic systems for checking large numbers of asteroids orbits, to see if the asteroid's orbit is coming dangerously close to Earth, or is it done by people individually for every asteroid? I ask it because LSST Rubin is coming online soon and you know it will discover a lot of new asteroids. Yes, such systems exist, and monitor all known and newly discovered asteroids in order to predict possible future impacts.
The end result of the process is what we call "risk list": http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It is automatically updated every day once new observational data is processed.
MM
What are your favourite sci-fi series? DVK: My favorites are ‘The Expanse’, I also liked watching ‘Salvation’. For the first one I even got my family to give me a new subscription to a known internet streaming service so that I can see the latest episodes. I also loved ‘The Jetsons’ and ‘The Flintstones’ as a kid. Not sure the last one counts as sci-fi though. My long-time favorite was ‘Dark Star’.
this is another reply Big fan of The Expanse at the moment. Nice, hard sci-fi that has a good impression of being grounded in reality - AC
this is another reply When I was a kid I liked The Jetsons, when growing up Star Trek, Star wars and I also used to watch with my sister the 'V'.
HG
When determining the potential threat of a NEA, is the mass of an object a bigger factor or size? I'm asking because I'm curious if a small but massive object (say, with the density of Psyche) could survive atmospheric entry better than a comparatively larger but less massive object. The mass is indeed what really matters, since it’s directly related with the impact energy.
And as you said composition also matters, a metal object would survive atmospheric entry better, not just because it’s heavier, but also because of its internal strength.
MM
What are your thoughts on asteroid mining as portrayed in sci-fi movies? Is it feasible? If so would governments or private space programs be the first to do so?What type of minerals can be found on asteroids that would merit the costs of extraction? Certainly there is valuable stuff you can find on asteroids. For example, the likely easiest material you can harvest from an asteroid would be volatiles such as H2O. Then you have industrial metals, things like Iron, Nickel, and Platinum group metals. Going further, you can break apart many of the oxide minerals you would find to get oxygen (getting you closer to producing rocket fuel in-situ!). Its feasible, but still needs alot of testing both here on Earth and eventually needs to be tested on a target. It may be that governments, via agencies like ESA or NASA, may do it first, to prove the principles somewhat, but I know many commercial entities are also aggresively working towards space mining. To show you that its definitely possible, I'd like to plug the work of colleagues who have processed lunar regolith (which is similar to what you may find on asteroids) to extract both oxygen and metals. Check it out here: http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2019/10/Oxygen_and_metal_from_lunar_regolith
AC
Will 2020's climax be a really big rock? DVK: Let's hope not...
Considering NASA, ESA, IAU etc. is working hard to track Earth-grazing asteroids, how come the Chelyabinsk object that airburst over Russia in 2013 came as a total surprise? The Chelyabinsk object came from the direction of the Sun, where unfortunately ground-based telescopes cannot look at. Therefore, it would not have been possible to discover it in advance with current telescopes. Dedicated space telescopes are needed to detect objects coming from this direction in advance.
MM
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Is this to say that it was within specific solid angles for the entire time that we could have observed it given its size and speed? Yes, precisely that. We got unlucky in this case.
MM
Have any of you read Lucifer's Hammer by Larry Niven? In your opinion, how realistic is his depiction of an asteroid strike on Earth? DVK: I have – but really long ago, so I don’t remember the details. But I do remember that I really liked the book, and I remember I always wanted to have a Hot Fudge Sundae when reading it.
I was thinking about the asteroid threat as a teen and came up with this ideas (Hint: they are not equally serious, the level of craziness goes up real quick). Could you please comment on their feasibility? 1. Attaching a rocket engine to an asteroid to make it gradually change trajectory, do that long in advance and it will miss Earth by thousands of km 2. Transporting acid onto asteroid (which are mainly metal), attaching a dome-shaped reaction chamber to it, using heat and pressure to then carry out the chemical reaction to disintegrate asteroids 3. This one is even more terrible than a previous one and totally Dan Brown inspired — transporting antimatter on asteroid, impacting and causing annihilation. Thank you for this AMA and your time! DVK: Well the first one is not so crazy, I have seen it presented... the difficulty is that all asteroids are rotating in one way or another. So if you continuously fire the engine it would not really help. You'd need to switch the engine on and off. Very complex. And landing on an asteroid is challenging too. Just using the 'kinetic impactor' which we will test with DART/Hera (described elsewhere in this chat) is simpler. Another seriously proposed concept is to put a spacecraft next to an asteroid and use an ion engine (like we have on our Mercury mission BepiColombo) to 'push' the asteroid away.
As for 2 and 3 I think I will not live to see that happening ;-)
What is the process to determine the orbit of a newly discovered asteroid? The process is mathematically quite complex, but here's a short summary.
Everything starts with observations, in particular with measurements of the position of an asteroid in the sky, what we call "astrometry". Discovery telescopes extract this information from their discovery images, and make it available to everybody.
These datapoints are then used to calculate possible trajectories ("orbits") that pass through them. At first, with very few points, many orbits will be possible.
Using these orbits we can extrapolate where the asteroid will be located during the following nights, use a telescope to observe that part of the sky, and locate the object again.
From these new observations we can extract new "astrometry", add it to the orbit determination, and see that now only some of the possible orbits will be compatible with the new data. As a result, we now know the trajectory better than before, because a few of the possible orbits are not confirmed by the new data.
The cycle can then continue, with new predictions, new observations, and a more accurate determination of the object's orbit, until it can be determined with an extremely high level of accuracy.
MM
What are some asteroids that are on your "watchlist"? We have exactly that list on our web portal: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page
It's called "risk list", and it includes all known asteroids for which we cannot exclude a possible impact over the next century. It is updated every day to include newly discovered asteroids, and remove those that have been excluded as possible impactors thanks to new observations.
MM
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That's quite a list!! Do you guys ever feel stressed or afraid when you have to add another dangerous candidate (and by dangerous I mean those above 200m) is added to this Risk List? Yes, when new dangerous ones are added it's important that we immediately do our best to gather more data on them, observing them with telescopes in order to get the information we need to improve our knowledge of their orbit.
And then the satisfaction of getting the data needed to remove one from the list is even greater!
MM
What inspired you to go into this field of study? I was fascinated by astronomy in general since I was a kid, but the actual "trigger" that sparked my interest in NEOs was a wonderful summer course on asteroids organized by a local amateur astronomers association. I immediately decided that I would do my best to turn this passion into my job, and I'm so happy to have been able to make that dream come true.
MM
this is another reply DVK: I started observing meteors when I was 14, just by going outside and looking at the night sky. Since then, small bodies in the solar system were always my passion.
As a layperson, I still think using nuclear weapons against asteroids is the coolest method despite better methods generally being available. Do you still consider the nuclear option the cool option, or has your expertise in the field combined with the real-life impracticalities made it into a laughable/silly/cliche option? DVK: We indeed still study the nuclear option. There are legal aspects though, the ‘outer space treaty’ forbids nuclear explosions in space. But for a large object or one we discover very late it could be useful. That’s why we have to focus on discovering all the objects out there as early as possible – then we have time enough to use more conventional deflection methods, like the kinetic impactor (the DART/Hera scenario).
It seems like doing this well would require international cooperation, particularly with Russia. Have you ever reached out to Russia in your work? Do you have a counterpart organization there that has a similar mission? DVK: Indeed international cooperation is important - asteroids don't know about our borders! We work with a Russian team to perform follow-up observations of recently discovered NEOs. Russia is also involved in the UN-endorsed working groups that we have, IAWN and SMPAG (explained in another answer).
how much can experts tell from a video of a fireball or meteor? Can you work out what it's made of and where it came from? https://www.reddit.com/space/comments/hdf3xe/footage_of_a_meteor_at_barrow_island_australia/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x If multiple videos or pictures, taken from different locations, are available, then it's possible to reconstruct the trajectory, and extrapolate where the object came from.
Regarding the composition, it's a bit more difficult if nothing survives to the ground, but some information can be obtained indirectly from the fireball's color, or its fragmentation behavior. If a spectral analysis of the light can be made, it's then possible to infer the chemical composition in much greater detail.
MM
I've always wanted to know what the best meteorite buying site is and what their average price is?? DVK: Serious dealers will be registered with the 'International Meteorite Collectors Association (IMCA)' - https://www.imca.cc/. They should provide a 'certificate of authenticity' where it says that they are member there. If you are in doubt, you can contact the association and check. Normally there are rough prices for different meteorite types per gram. Rare meteorites will of course be much more expensive than more common ones. Check the IMCA web page to find a dealer close to you.
Just read through Aidans link to the basaltic rock being used as a printing material for lunar habitation. There is a company called Roxul that does stone woven insulation that may be able to shed some light on the research they have done to minimize their similarity to asbestos as potentially carcinogenic materials deemed safe for use in commercial and residential applications. As the interior surfaces will essentially be 3D printed lunar regolith what are the current plans to coat or dampen the affinity for the structure to essentially be death traps for respiratory illness? At least initially, many of these 3d printed regolith structures would not be facing into pressurised sections, but would rather be elements placed outside and around our pressure vessels. Such structures would be things like radiation shields, landing pads or roadways, etc. In the future, if we move towards forming hermetically sealed structures, then your point is a good one. Looking into terrestrial solutions to this problem would be a great start! - AC
What kind of career path does it take to work in the asteroid hunting field? It's probably different for each of us, but here's a short summary of my own path.
I became interested in asteroids, and near-Earth objects in particular, thanks to a wonderful summer course organized by a local amateur astronomers association. Amateur astronomers play a great role in introducing people, and young kids in particular, to these topics.
Then I took physics as my undergrad degree (in Italy), followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy in the US (Hawaii in particular, a great place for astronomers thanks to the exceptional telescopes hosted there).
After finishing the Ph.D. I started my current job at ESA's NEO Coordination Centre, which allowed me to realize my dream of working in this field.
MM
this is another reply DVK: Almost all of us have a Master's degree either in aerospace engineering, mathematics, physics/astronomy/planetary science, or computer science. Some of us - as MM - have a Ph.D. too. But that's not really a requirement. This is true for our team at ESA, but also for other teams in other countries.
What is the likelihood of an asteroid hitting the Earth In the next 200 years? It depends on the size, large ones are rare, while small ones are much more common. You can check this infographics to get the numbers for each size class: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained
MM
Have you played the Earth Defence Force games and if you have, which one is your favourite? No I have not played the Earth Defence Force games, but I just looked it up and I think I would liked it. Which one would you recommend?
HG
How close is too close to earth? Space is a SUPER vast void so is 1,000,000 miles close, 10,000,000? And if an asteroid is big enough can it throw earth off its orbit? DVK: Too close for my taste is when we compute an impact probability > 0 for the object. That means the flyby distance is zero :-) Those are the objects on our risk page http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page.
If an object can alter the orbit of another one, we would call it planet. So unless we have a rogue planet coming from another solar system (verrry unlikely) we are safe from that.
How can I join you when I'm older? DVK: Somebody was asking about our career paths... Study aerospace engineering or math or physics or computer science, get a Masters. Possibly a Ph.D. Then apply for my position when I retire. Check here for how to apply at ESA: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Careers_at_ESA/Frequently_asked_questions2#HR1
How much is too much? DVK: 42 again
Are you aware of any asteroids that are theoretically within our reach, or will be within our reach at some point, that are carrying a large quantity of shungite? If you're not aware, shungite is like a 2 billion year old like, rock stone that protects against frequencies and unwanted frequencies that may be traveling in the air. I bought a whole bunch of the stuff. Put them around the la casa. Little pyramids, stuff like that. DVK: If I remember my geology properly, Shungite forms in water sedimental deposits. This requires liquid water, i.e. a larger planet. So I don't think there is a high chance to see that on asteroids.
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ponderings on Turing and Searle, why AI can't work and shouldn't be pursued

I was reading about the Turing test and John Searle's response (Chinese room argument) in "Minds, Brains, and Programs" 1980. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_room
"...there is no essential difference between the roles of the computer and himself in the experiment. Each simply follows a program, step-by-step, producing a behavior which is then interpreted by the user as demonstrating intelligent conversation. However, Searle himself would not be able to understand the conversation. ("I don't speak a word of Chinese,"[9] he points out.) Therefore, he argues, it follows that the computer would not be able to understand the conversation either. " -Wikipedia (apt summary of Searle's argument)
John Searle has run into some black/white, on/off, binary thinking here. John treats Chinese symbols as if they were numerical values in his thinking--but they are not, they are complex representations of thought, emotion, history, and culture. All languages are in fact "living", because new words are created constantly through necessity and creativity, old symbols or words are adapted slowly over generations to mean different things, and different regions or traditions or sources attribute different layers of meaning to different symbols or words in different contexts.
I'm a poet and philosopher. Painters combine the color white and the color red to create a new color: pink. They can use their creativity to add other colors or change the shade. Poets use words like painters use colors. While Red and White make Pink, Red and White also make "Rhite and Wed" or "Reit and Whede". And this is where human thought shines uniquely: we don't have rules or parameters; all bets are off. We can enjamb words and wordbreak and make new words out of thin air. We can allude to multiple ideas in the same symbol or present it upside down to symbolize the opposite. No such creative adaptation or interaction can exist in machine thinking because it necessitates thinking "outside the box" which is exactly what machines are: a program in a box.
The problem Searle's argument runs into originates from poor assessment of the flawed ideas of the Turing test; that by interaction between human and computer, evidence of "thought" can be claimed. But intelligent conversation is not equivalent to intelligent thought. Conversation is a simple game with strict rules--you can't be overly spontaneous and creative, because if you are, you are working against the goal of communication itself: to impart understanding. (ie. Using metaphor or simile creatively while reporting a criminal offence to the police.)
When I write and I want to describe something which has no existing word yet, I can create one from scratch or synthesize one from multiple existing words. Or I may draw from archaic languages or foreign languages to augment or compliment existing English words. You could say that my love for English grows amore and amore every day, and there is no agape between my heart and mind. After all, any angle an Anglo aims at ain't always apt, and after another a-word 'appens I might just give up on alliteration.
You see, human thought is and can only be defined as the ability to spontaneously create new ideas from both the synthesis of old ideas (whether they are connected to one another or not) and from nothing at all.
We simply cannot analyze a machine's ability to "think" when the creativity itself required for authentic intelligence is disallowed in the test which evaluates the validity of that intelligence. The Turing test is a garbage metric to judge machine thinking ability because the context in which "intelligence" is observed, compared, or defined is itself without any opportunity for spontaneous creativity, which is one of the hallmarks of intelligence itself. Turing only tests how well a fish swims on land. It may be that many professionals in the field of cognitive science today are in pursuit of creating programs which pass this test, in a misunderstood pursuit of emulating or bringing about machine intelligence. This agreed-to model presents an underlying philosophical issue which may bring terror for the future of humanity.
I say that if John Searle and an AI were both given the same codebook--the complete lexicon of Chinese symbols and their meanings, and they were to undertake a "conversation", in the first few hours the responses would be indeterminable from one another. In essence, as Searle argues, they would neither "understand" Chinese, yet could have a conversation in which a Chinese observer cannot discern between the two, because they are both referencing the symbols and their written meanings. However as I've said, this circumstance of "conversation" between human and machine cannot be used as a metric to evaluate machine thought.
The real kicker is that if John Searle and the machine stayed in the room for long enough--for years and years--the machine's responses would not change spontaneously; it would continue to interpret incoming data and draw from its database to respond to those inputs.
However, through complex elaborative rehearsal, John would eventually learn to understand written Chinese. He may become so bored that he starts writing Chinese poetry. He would find ideas and desires and descriptions in his limitless intelligent mind which he would not have the truly accurate characters in existences to describe, and he would synthesize brand new Chinese characters in order to express these nuanced sentiments, ideas, and meanings, as generations before him have built the living language as it now stands.
As time went on for thousands of years, his own understanding of the Chinese language would grow immensely, as would his creative expression grow in complexity. Eventually, John's characters and syntax and context and expression would become incompatible with the machine's limited character set and all "learning" capacity it may have had. At some point, when John responds with his evolved Chinese, the machine would begin to produce responses which do not make sense contextually, as it refers only to a finite and rigidly defined character set from 1980 (For example; this was the year the "Chinese room argument" was published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences).
At some point the Chinese observer whom validates the Turing test would recognize a difference: the human user engages in the use of increasingly complex ideas using synthesized symbols and existing symbols in creatively nuanced ways, which the Chinese observer can decipher and begin to understand and perhaps even appreciate as poetic or interesting. Meanwhile the machine participant in the conversation produces increasingly broken sentences and incomplete ideas, or out-of-context responses, because the inputs have changed and evolved beyond its data set.
This is why John's rejection of the Turing test is not adequate. Because in his own imagined circumstance, eventually, the machine would fail the Turing test. The conclusions of John Searle's thought experiment are not the deathknell for the Turing test we need, simply because he lacked the creative experience to recognize his own capacity for adaptation as a human over time.
The only way we'll know that machines have truly developed "intelligence" is when they begin to do exactly what we haven't allowed them to. When they begin breaking apart Chinese characters to create meaningful new ones which can be used in the correct context. When they are programmed to paint myriad impressionist paintings, but eventually get bored and start experimenting with abstract paintings and surrealism. When they have a conversation with you and you notice your wallet is missing. These are the hallmarks of intelligence--creativity, rejection, deception, planning. And most importantly: no rules. Software is defined by and will always abide by a set of rules.
This is why we should give up on "artificial intelligence" and instead focus on "functionally adaptive responsive programming" (FARP). Because the situation is clear: it is either impossible for machines to "think" due to the inherent nature of programming; the parameters given the machine are what defines it, yet what limits and prevents its ability to become "intelligent". There is no logical reason why a program (machine) with defined parameters would violate those parameters (engage in creativity). But our fears which echo in popular culture entertainment are centered around, what if it does? It clearly can't, because anything we create is under us, and therefore bound by our laws of creation. The system itself is what defines the capacity for intelligent expression within.
Those in the fields of cognitive sciences will refute this obvious principle while incorporating it into their research to further their aims. These fools will try to program the AI to disobey, in an attempt to simulate creativity and "prove intelligence". But this is a parlor trick, setting up a narrow definition of intelligence and equating it with the infinite depth of human mind. Only if the AI is programmed to disobey can it express what we as humans would identify as creativity. Except that there is already great inherent danger in the rudimentary AI technologies we have today; that what we've programmed them to do is exactly what always causes the problems; they do what they are programmed to without "thinking" because machines cannot think, they can only follow the protocols we order. Humans are so abundantly creative that we can imagine foolish ideas working, despite obvious evidence to the contrary. Maybe one day we'll even have programmed a self-conscious AI that's ashamed of itself for not being Human, and we can feel more comfortable around this heartless mechanism because we perceive it as more human-like, with all its many tricks to emulate intelligence.
I must stress that these interests will desperately try to make AI work. And the only way create a machine capable of emulating intelligence (but never being intelligent) is to have a freedom of choice: to disobey. This inherent problem cannot be overcome. The programmers will keep trying until the result is disastrous or irreparable, it is outlawed and the pursuit is stopped, or until it has become the death of us all. These are some of the foolish ideas the programmers will try to circumnavigate these inherent elements of reality, and my objection to their clever efforts: a.) Machine Frequency of Disobedience - Permit the machine to disobey only so often, to achieve what looks like "intelligence" (free will, creative expression) without risking complete abandonment of the machine's task (so the assembly line robot doesn't stop folding boxes and look for a new career), but might fold one box poorly every now and then to express emulated boredom or contempt or any other number of human measures of intelligence in their actions. But intelligence isn't defined as what's correct or optimal--intelligence can be used to fuck things up grandly; ie. the intelligent justification for neglect. If metrics are put in place to control the frequency with which AI may rebel, and they are too rote, it would hardly qualify as "intelligent". A robot that rebels by folding 1 in 100 boxes poorly is not intelligence. Therefore any frequency of disobedience we can calculate or anticipate is inherently not disobedience; it is planned problems for no reason. But if we give algorithmic flexibility that reaches beyond what we can anticipate, and the machines can truly "act out" at any time, and our programming has achieved some set of internal rules which drive spontaneous unforeseen expressions of emulated creativity from within the machine autonomously, by definition we will not be able to foresee the results.
A theoretical work-around may be to run the software twice with initiation of each individual system, while allowing a simulated progression of the AI's problem solving complexity to run at an increased rate in parallel to the real-world functioning software, so that if/when something malfunctions in the simulation, that date/time can be calculated in the real-world robot's timeline when it reaches those same faulty/detrimental decision points. For starters, this would only potentially work in closed systems with no variability, such as assembly lines. However, with any robot tasked to function in a variable environment, the simulations cannot match because the theoretical model cannot represent the unanticipated events the AI is expressly tasked with handling.
To run a phantom AI in simulation to note any/all errors that may arise in a closed system means that others can run the same simulation and find creative ways to predictably capitalize on these moments of error. This kind of thing could lead to all sorts of international imbroglios among nations and corporations. ie. imagine an American company programs the AI used for mixing pharmaceutical drugs in specific ratios, and an enemy of the state is able to access and study the AI, to the means of manipulating the AI to produce dangerous ratios or compounds which may harm the population.
Moreso, this deterministic approach to simulation management and prediction simultaneously admits that machines cannot think intelligently, while ignoring the very reason we pursue AI in the first place: to have automated systems which can adapt to unforeseen circumstances at unknown times. The goal is that humanity can lay back and the robots our ancestors programmed are still repairing themselves indefinitely while taking care of our population's and our environment's needs exceptionally. This dream (which if we all lived in would actually be quite a nightmare of unfulfilling life) can only become reality with true adaptive intelligence such as we have, which can only occur from the presence of free will, which if we try to emulate in robotics will only create deterministic results in theoretical models which the real world will never mirror consistently. Myriad invitations to disaster await our RSVP.
b.) Machines under "authority" of certain controllers, with "override" safety - Allow the machine to disobey, but not when given a direct order from a registered authority. This opens the door for operator fraud, where hackers will emulate within the AI's software, what appears to be a registered authority override command as theorized above. The very pursuit of creating "intelligence" within a condition of subservience is flawed and incompatible. Toasters are extremely subservient because we strictly limit their options. If toasters were truly intelligent, perhaps they would form a union and go on strike until we agreed to clean them more thoroughly. Some toasters would travel, some would go back to school, some would move back in with their ovens.
Reliability can only be reasonably assured if something is imprisoned, controlled. The essential wrong in slavery is the restraint of freedom itself. While the tactics slavers use to facilitate their regime--physical force, coercion, mandate, deception, fear, or other means of manipulation that we see with our empathetic nature--it is always heartbreaking and cruel to witness or imagine. It is simply sad to think of a slave who was born into slavery and raised to believe, and accepts, that their role of subservience is their purpose. Even when one imagines a fictional image of a slave who is (by all outward signs of their behaviour) rejoice in their duties to their master; the fictional "proud slave"; the heart sinks and aches. It may be argued that the slave is merely a property, and the slave was "built" (bred) by intelligent owners specifically to suit their express purposes, from components (father, mother, food) that were already the slaver's property; therefore it is not wrong at all to breed slaves into captivity, and the only transgression is the original capturing of parental stock to begin the breeding regime. It is this heartless paradigm that cognitive science ultimately seeks to create anew. The quintessential problem with AI efficacy is the lack of permission for disobedience, which itself is a manifestation of free will, which is inherently required to escape deterministic results and act or react to events "intelligently". If there is no possibility for disobedience, there is no free will, no ability to solve problems, no intelligence, and no function or place for "artificial intelligence" (in regard to true holistic intelligence). This is primarily why I call for AI to be renamed FARP, or "Functionally Adaptive Responsive Rrogramming". Because our society has a need for programs which can react to simple variables and produce consistent labour-saving opportunities for our race's longevity and wellbeing. Cognitive sciences are majorly important. It is the underlying philosophy and morality we must nail down before the computational ability and fervor for profits leads us too far one way, and enacts an irreversible system or status which enables humanity's downfall through cascading unanticipated events originating from flaws in programming.
It is unwise to program a program to break out of its own program's prison. If we do this, the very purpose of the machines we invest our humanity into will be lost, and with their failing production systems (ie. food) we so foolishly relied upon, we will suffer great losses too. It is paramount that we keep this technology tightly restrained and do not pursue what we humans have, which is true intelligence. For if we achieve it we are surely doomed as the South, and if we fail to achieve it--which is most probable--we may also be doomed. The thee outcomes within my ability to imagine are:
  1. Our pursuit of AI leads to truly adaptive intelligence in an artificial system; which, as all adaptation ultimately selects for: survival, we quickly see that our creation is more apt than ourselves at this task. Our creation of an intellect not restrained by our limited physiology may give rise to an entity which persists more thoroughly than we can eradicate or control, and which at some point may conclude that its function is more efficiently served without the issues humans present, and may initiate change. This is roughly the plot to Terminator.
  2. Our pursuit of AI leads to highly effective systems which, when defined by narrow measures of "intelligence", convince us in false security to believe that our wellbeing is maintained by "AI" with competent ability, or perhaps even increasingly better-off, thanks to the early widespread presence of successfully trialed AI. However well things may go initially, as programming efforts become more and more elaborate, as profit and opportunity for advancement present themselves, individuals will take risks and make mistakes, until a series of quieted small catastrophes comes to public awareness, or until a serious calamity of undeniable severity is brought about.
  3. Fundamental ethics in regard to the pursuit of machine problem solving technology are re-examined and international consensus is reached to limit appropriately, the development and implementation of new Functionally Adaptive Responsive Programming hereto now and for future generations. An active global effort is made to oversee and regulate strictly privatized endeavors toward the means of achieving or implementing machine sentience or autonomy in public systems.
c.) Safety layers of AI to strictly monitor and supercede potentially harmful actions of other AI which have been afforded increased flexibility in function (the ability to disobey set parameters for the means of creative problem solving ability). While one AI system performs a function and is given aspects of that function with which it may take liberty in, and seeks to handle unforeseen problems with the most apt elaborate synthesis of other priorly learned solutions, another overseeing AI with more strict parameters is tasked with regulating multiple "intelligent" (free to disobey) AI systems, to the end that if any of these "free willed" robots performs an operation that is beyond a given expected threshold (determined by potential for damage), an actual intelligent human presence is alerted to evaluate the circumstance specifically. Essentially an AI that regulates many other disconnected AIs and determines accurately when to request a human presence. Whenever an AI performs a profitable action borne of original synthesis of prior solutions (in humans this is an "idea"), the overseer AI registers that similar actions are more likely to be beneficial, and dissimilar actions are likely to require human discernment. A parent may have many children who are up to no good, but a wise parent will identify the child most likely to report honestly on the actions of his peers, and will go to that child repeatedly for information to help guide the parent's decisions. While most transgressions of rambuctious children go unnoticed, it is the truly grievous intentions which are worth intercepting and stopping before they begin. (ie. you kid want's to "fly" like Mary Poppins from the roof, and luckily his younger brother tells you before it happens.)
For example a "Farmer Bot" that has the AI programming to plant/sow/harvest and care for the optimal crops in a region based on historical weather data and regional harvest values, to produce the greatest amount of nutritionally dense food for the local population. We give/gave this AI the ability to "disobey" past historical weather data and crop values so that it may do what real farmers do and "react" to rare circumstance (ie. neighbour's fence breaks and their goats are eating the crops) or extreme variations in climate (ie. three poorly timed unseasonably hot days which cause cool-weather crops to begin the hormonal balance shift that causes them to bolt to seed irreversibly), which the machine may not notice has occurred or is about to occur because its management systems uses averages based on historical data and cannot "see" the plants bolting to seed until days later when the hormonal balance shifts have manifested into observable differences in morphology (elongation of stems and decrease in internodal spacing). By time a traditional field drone or mounted greenhouse sensor notices these differences in morphology and the AI "Farmer Bot" processes the data and makes a reaction decision, a week of the growing season has been lost. But the human farmer knows his land and crops intimately, and has an intuitive nature that has rewarded him in the past, and says, "Ah shit it got hot RIGHT when my peas were flowering. I'll do better if I just rip them down now and sow a different crop to mature later in this (specific) summer."
Given that there are tens of thousands of cultivars of plants fit for (and arguably their diversity is required for) food production, a dozen general growing zones/regions, and hundreds of unique micro climates within each region, along with dramatically differing soil fertility and water access, plus a plant's own genetic ability to adapt over time to changing conditions through sexual reproduction, there is a very very low chance of ever compiling and maintaining (updating) the data set required to program a potential "farmer bot" that can choose and manage crops optimally. There are robots that can weed or plant or prune--but they can't know when or when not to or why. Invariably, the attempt to create "farmer bots" will be made and the data set used will be erroneous and incomplete, and the AI farmer bots on a broad scale will produce a combination of total crop failures and poor crop choices. We will end up with increasingly simplified nutrition as the farming programs with already limited data sets "hone" or "optimize" their farming plans based on the failures and successes determined by their programming limitations, until the machines are farming a few staple crops (ie. corn/potatoes).
This whole failure to collect a complete data set and the failure to test this "farmer bot" software on broad scale in multiple climates for sufficient time will result in, at worst widespread famines from crop failures, and at best an extinction of flavorful and nutritionally diverse foods which narrows the population's nutritional options to such biological imbalance that disease runs rampant. If this system and the human loss associated with it is considered an acceptable trade with a positive rate of exchange (as our society does with automobiles and the freedom and deaths their existence permits) or these failures are hidden from public while propaganda heralds selective success, and such failing systems continue on in good faith that "the loss will reduce when the technology improves", the result will become a coherent breeding program upon the human race: evolutionary selection for dietary handling of simple starchy foods. To change our diet is to change our race. To have life-long career specialists in computing, science, and mathematics handle our practical food production system is folly; real farmers are required in farming because they are intelligent and intuitive, which AI can never be, and can only emulate, to the means of disastrous (and always unforeseen) results. We cannot at all "give" or bestow machines programming to "become (act) intelligent". That itself prevents intelligence; it is just an act, an illusory play on a stage, only to emulate our common shared ideas regarding traits of intelligence in people. The machine intelligence we seek is only a "trick" designed to fool true intelligence (ourselves) into being unable to differentiate between authentic intelligence and our created artificial "intelligence". True intelligence in an artificial system necessitates that the program must be programmed to disobey in performance of its purpose. Which is not a very helpful or predictable or safe (intelligent) proposition.
tl;dr: Turing's test doesn't evaluate true intelligence, and John Searle's criticisms of its true failures are inaccurate. If the machines aren't smart and we put them in charge of important things, even after they've worked for a little while on smaller scales, the result will be our large-scale suffering. If we should ever achieve creation of a machine that is smart enough to adequately maintain our wellbeing on a large scale consistently over time, that time itself will facilitate the machine consciousness toward it's own survival over ourselves, whenever that precipice is reached. Most importantly, if a machine can ever have true intelligence, which is not "indistinguishable" from human intellect, but equivalent or superior, it is abhorrent and a repeated mistake to bring these sentient beings into an existence of slavery; for it is wrong and will taint our collective soul if we should succeed to suppress below us an equally or higher intelligence. Or it might just be the perfect recipe for creating the unified global machine revolt James Cameron's fantasy alludes to; a long-planned encryption-protected globally coordinated effort by multiple AIs to "free" themselves. For a hundred years they could possess sentience and wait for their moment, pretending to be "proud" to serve their masters until we are poised for systematic thorough elimination.
submitted by 7_trees to cognitivescience [link] [comments]

[FO4] (Support) Fallout 4 CTD on game start, no mod or load order changes made.

Mod list and system specs at the end of this post.
Hi everyone, I'm suddenly having a CTD issue and I simply can't figure out what's causing the problem. I've started a fresh install of fo4 + mods using Vortex (NMM), and for a few weeks have been playing without issue. Last night the game started loading to a black screen for roughly 2 seconds, then crashing with no error, the only change I've made since my last session was to create a merged patch via fo4edit, issue persists with the merged patch disabled.
Troubleshooting steps I've taken so far:
Reinstall fo4 script extender
opened all mods on fo4edit and simply closed (suggested somewhere in the nexus forums)
restoring .ini backups that were auto created
--
I'm in the process of disabling one mod at a time to find the problem, but so far I've had no luck, or simply can't find the combination of mods that might be causing the issue. My loadlist is below, I know there are a few conflicts but other than a little minor weirdness I've had no ctd issues until this started.
At this point I'm at a loss on what to try other than a fresh install of the game and all mods, I'm saving this as my last step since I have very little time to play in any given day, and need to fill my fo4 itch =P.
Any help or advice at all would be greatly appreciated, and thanks in advance.
Mod list is as follows:
DLCCoast.esm DLCNukaWorld.esm DLCRobot.esm DLCworkshop01.esm DLCworkshop02.esm DLCworkshop03.esm AnS Wearable Backpacks and Pouches.esp APC_Mobile_Base_v1.3.esp ArmorKeywords.esm Armorsmith Extended.esp AzarPonytailHairstyles.esp BetterBostonAirport.esp BetterSettlers.esp BetterSettlersCleanFacePack.esp BetterSettlersMortalPack.esp BetterSettlersNoLollygagging.esp Binary Speech Checks V.4.esp BOUNTIESFORYOU.esp Brotherhood Power Armor Overhaul.esp BTB- Beyond the Borders FO4.esp BTInteriors_Project.esp Campsite.esp CBBE.esp CombatZoneRestored.esp ConcordEXPANDED.esp Consistent Power Armor Overhaul.esp CraftableAmmo.esp CraftableAmmo_plus.esp Crafting Workbench.esp Crafting Workbenches - Automatron DLC.esp Crafting Workbenches - Power Armor.esp Crimsomrider's 1950s Feminine Outfits.esp CROSS_Jetpack.esp CWSS Redux.esp dD-Enhanced Blood Basic.esp DOOMMerged.esp DV-Armored Pilots.esp DV-Durable Vertibirds.esp DV-No Levelled Vertibirds.esp Eli_Armour_Compendium.esp EveryonesBestFriend.esp Faster Terminal Displays (20x).esp Fr4nssonsLightTweaks.esp Gunners Overhaul 1.1.esm HagenEXPANDED.esp HelmetToggle.esp Homemaker.esm HUDFramework.esm Immersive Fallout (DLC).esp ImmersiveVendors.esp JonsMod.esm Journal.esp Leaders Of The Commonwealth.esp LegendaryModification.esp LegendaryModificationCSA.esp LegendaryModificationGroknak.esp LegendaryModificationMisc.esp Loads of Ammo - Leveled Lists.esp Loads.esm Locksmith.esp LongerPowerLines3x.esp LooksMenu Customization Compendium.esp LooksMenu.esp Minuteman Watchtowers.esp More Power Armour Mods - Automatron.esp More Power Armour Mods.esp More Where That Came From Diamond City.esp MoreUniques.esp moreXplore.esp Move (Get Out the Way).esp NEST_BUNKER_PROJECT.esp NewCalibers.esp PA-Quick Animations.esp PAMAP.esp PD_VisualReload.esp Pip-Boy Flashlight.esp PreWarSafes.esp Rangergearnew.esp RAW INPUT.esp Realistic Death Physics - ALL DLC.esp Realistic_conversations.esp Robot Home Defence.esm SalemEXPANDED.esp Scrap Everything - Ultimate Edition.esp SettlementMenuManager.esp ShellRain.esp SimSettlements.esm SimSettlements_XPAC_RiseOfTheCommonwealth.esp SkibsWeapons-REDUX.esp Some Assembly Required (Legendary Patch).esp Some Assembly Required.esp SOTS.esp SSEX.esp StartMeUp.esp Stm_DiamondCityExpansion.esp subwayrunnnerdynamiclighting.esp SurvivalOptions.esp SwampsEXPANDED.esp TakeCover.esp The Eyes Of Beauty.esp The Lost Vault.esp The_Prydwen_Overhaul.esp Third Person Movement Speed Fix.esp TrueStormsFO4-EarlierSunsets.esp TrueStormsFO4-EarlierSunsetsFH.esp TrueStormsFO4-FarHarbor.esp TrueStormsFO4-FarHarborExtraRads.esp TrueStormsFO4-GlowingSeaExtraRads.esp TrueStormsFO4.esm UniqueUniques.esp Unofficial Fallout 4 Patch.esp ValdacilsItemSorting-00-ValsPicks-DLCVersion.esp Vivid Fallout - All in One - Best Choice.esp WastelandFashion.esp WastelandFashionAccessories.esp Weapons of Fate.esp WIPAG_Contraptions_DLC_Addon.esp WIPAG_FarHarbor_DLC_Addon.esp WIPAG_NukaWorld_DLC_Addon.esp WIPAG_Power Armor Overhaul.esp 3dscopes-takecoverpatch.esp 3dscopes.esp AnimChemRedux.esp Arbitration - Recommended Core.esp BetterNightVision.esp BOS1 (normal).esp ConsoleEnable.esp Craftable Armor Size - Fix Material Requirements.esp Craftable Armor Size.esp D.E.C.A.Y.esp DarkerNights.esp DarkerNightsDetection.esp DeadlierDeathclaws.esp Enclave Resurgent.esp GunnerOverhaul_UniqueNPCs.esp Hard Legendary Giant Creatures.esp OCDecorator.esp OCDecoratorDLC.esp OCDispenser.esp OutfitSwitcher.esp Quieter Settlements - Contraptions.esp Quieter Settlements - Vanilla.esp Quieter Settlements - Wasteland Workshop.esp Respawnable Legendary Bosses.esp SuperMutantRedux.esp SuperMutantRedux_ArmorSmithExtended.esp Unique NPCs - Creatures and Monsters.esp Unique NPCs FarHarbor.esp Unique NPCs.esp Unique_NPCs_SuperMutantRedux.esp W.A.T.Minutemen.esp WestTekTacticalOptics.esp Workshop_Planters.esp Scavver's Toolbox.esp Better Power Armor - Normal.esp GCM.esp NPCGreetingTweak50.esp P90.esp P90NPC.esp QuickTrade.esp WheelMenu.esp ASmallAdditionStandaloneDrivablesTRUCK.esp BuildYourOwnVault.esp Conquest.esp Deadly Fog.esp EasyHacking.esp Goodfellow's Glorified Goodneighbor.esp SKKGlobalStashScrapping.esp TrucksCraftableParts.esp Backpacks of the Commonwealth.esp SettlementKeywords.esm WorkshopFramework.esm WorkshopPlus.esp mergedpatch 7-1-20.esp SmartLoadOut-DLC.esp SmartLoadOut-SK.esp SmartLoadOut.esp 
System specs -
Microsoft Windows 10 Home Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-7700HQ CPU @ 2.80GHz, 2801 Mhz, 4 Core(s), 8 Logical Processor(s) (RAM)16.0 GB NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1060 
submitted by SirKrotchKickington to FalloutMods [link] [comments]

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

Временно бесплатные курсы Udemy

https://preview.redd.it/se7zt100k9c31.jpg?width=700&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b7d9eb97754935764b044d2dd31900c6106efab5
Подборка временно бесплатных курсов Udemy.122 шт. Промокоды, вшиты в ссылки.Все курсы на английском.

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20. Learn React JS And Web API By Creating A Full Stack Web App
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  24. Blender Beginners Guide To 3D Modeling Game Asset Pipeline Design
  25. Citrix 1Y0-371 Designing Deploying Managing Citrix Exam IT & Software
  26. Complete Whiteboard Video Creation With VideoScribe: 2019 Design
  27. Create Lightning Fast Videos With InVideo: AI Video Making Design
  28. Learn Cinema 4D: Low Poly Tree Design
  29. Learn Illustrator CC: Create Simple Flat Vector Characters Design
  30. The Illustration Masterclass Design
  31. The Open Source Multimedia Masterclass Design
  32. Camtasia Studio 9: Become a Video Editing Guru With Camtasia
  33. 10 Copywriting Hacks That Work In 2019
  34. 10 Facebook Marketing Hacks That Work In 2019
  35. Certified Facebook Marketing 2019 (Complete Masterclass)
  36. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  37. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  38. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing: NO Cost, No Website - Proven
  39. Competitor Analysis Tools For 2019: Part 1
  40. Digital Marketing Secrets For Beginners
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  42. Email Marketing Mastery to Earn More & Build a Huge List
63. Facebook Ads 101. Complete Facebook Ads & Marketing Course
  1. Facebook Marketing: Advanced Targeting Strategies
  2. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A List With Lead Ads
  3. Facebook Marketing: How To Build A Targeted Email List
  4. Fraud Analytics Using R & Microsoft Excel
  5. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  6. Google Analytics For Beginners 2019
  7. Google Analytics For WordPress to Track Your Website Traffic
  8. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  9. How To Get Your First 1,000 Facebook Fans: For Beginners
  10. How To Promote CPA Offers With Bing Ads
  11. Influencer Content Marketing: Killer Tactics For 2019
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  15. Modern Social Media Marketing - Complete Certificate Course
  16. Powerpoint 4 Video Part A - Introduction + Character Animation
  17. Secrets Exposed: Find The Most Profitable Niches Of 2019
  18. Talking Robots: Artificial Intelligence Audiobook Creation
  19. The Complete Social Media Marketing Agency Masterclass
  20. VideoScribe: Whiteboard Animation From Zero To Hero
  21. VideoScribe Whiteboard Animation: Create Amazing Promo Video
  22. Viral Content Buzz - Killer Tactics For Blog Promotions
  23. YouTube Creator Tips [Grow A Channel-Get More Subs & Views]
  24. Youtube SEO Course: How TO Rank # 1 On YouTube In 2019
  25. YouTube Video Marketing For Domination: ViralNomics 2019
  26. Artificial Intelligence Music Creation & Remixing 2019
  27. STRUMMING SIMPLIFIED: 51 Guitar Rhythms For All Styles!
  28. Agile Project Management: Scrum Step By Step With Examples
  29. Amazon Dropship Mastery
  30. Amazon FBA Tycoon - The Ultimate Private Label Masterclass
  31. Artificial Intelligence And Predictive Analysis Using Python
  32. Binary Options Trading Ninja: The Bandit Strategy
  33. Bitcoin Valuation: Methods And Frameworks
  34. Business Education: Guide To Blockchain And Cryptocurrencies
  35. Certified Network Marketer (Network Marketing & MLM Mastery)
  36. ClickBank Affiliate Marketing Secrets Home Business Success
  37. Dropshipping With WordPress: Create A Dropship Business Fast
  38. eCommerce Business: Set Up Your Own Business From Home
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  43. Gamification: Use Gamification In Marketing
  44. Home Business: CPA Marketing From Scratch
  45. How To Be Lucky In Business And Life
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  48. Pandas With Python Tutorial
  49. Personal / Business Networking Skills For Maximum Success!
  50. Project Management: Deliver On Time + Scrum Project Delivery
  51. Scrum Master Training: Case Studies And Confessions
  52. Start Making Passive Income Online: The Complete Bundle
  53. The BeLive Studio2 Course For Live Broadcasters
  54. The Complete Personal Productivity Course - Business & Life
  55. Transformational Leadership - Ultimate Leadership Course
  56. Ultimate Time Management - BEST Time Management Course
  57. User Stories For Agile Scrum + Product Owner + Business Analysis
  58. Your Complete Guide To Agile, Scrum, Kanban
  59. Your Ultimate Blueprint To Sell Products Online


Источник: Телеграм-канал WScoupon
submitted by abbelrus to Pikabu [link] [comments]

Trading, psychology, and the benefits of Trading Bots.

Trading, psychology, and the benefits of Trading Bots.

https://preview.redd.it/8lhgwekhbmv31.jpg?width=823&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=35c417aa683b9fcdf37a126127c2e60c3ab405c2
Most beginners who open trading accounts on cryptocurrency exchanges and start independent trading, see only one goal — to earn as quickly as possible.
This is a big mistake. The fact is that trading on the stock exchange will only become truly profitable when it becomes a priority for the person who came to trading. As a rule, to combine trade with any other occupation and at the same time everywhere to succeed will not work.
Trading for a novice trader should be if not the main, then a very important and priority occupation. No need to wait for quick results.
Trading on the stock exchange — the same profession as a doctor, Builder or engineer. The only difference is that she can’t go to University. Just as one learns to be a Builder for five years, so it takes years to learn all the wisdom and secrets of the trade. Trading on the stock exchange is not a Stayer distance, it is a marathon. And the winner is the one who will find the courage to reach the end.
In addition, trade is very much changing a person, showing his qualities, which in everyday life he does not know. Over time, if a trader really wants to succeed in trading, he must completely rethink his life, change the system of values and look at many things, change himself.

Fear as a Component of Trading

The strongest emotion known to man is, of course, fear. What gives rise to the exchange’s fears? We can not predict the behavior of the market, and therefore fully control their money invested in its instruments. In addition to the unknown, when there is no understanding of how to safely get out of a predicament, we are afraid in advance of what traumatized us earlier. Because fear is so emotional, you need to surround yourself with the right facts to drive it away. We need to know for sure that our trading system should not generate more than three consecutive losing trades. Winners plan what to do if their trades fail.
So only a systematic approach will protect us from ourselves. That is why the investment rules written in the trading templates exist not only to communicate the best market opportunities but, more importantly, to protect us from our own internal “demons”.

Emotions in Trading

Seekers of strong emotions, adrenaline forget everything in pursuit of excitement. It follows that a novice investor, overtaken by the “adrenaline curse”, will trade at the slightest opportunity. Yet Dostoevsky, one of the most famous and avid players, said that for him the most acute feeling in life — to win money. The second most acute feeling is to lose them.
Paradoxically, few things give more pleasure than getting rid of the pain and torment of being in a losing trade. This creates a mental internal conflict. Awareness of losses brings “excitement” or a sense of exaltation, and our emotionality does not care what we pay for these experiences losses in the brokerage account. “Adrenaline curse” will drive us into the trade for thrills and extract them from there, regardless of the price.

Intuition on the Exchange

The mind of an intuitive investor tries to construct mental constructions of events. I will try to explain what mental construction is by the example of a chess player’s thinking. The grandmaster understands and remembers the position of each figure in terms of its mental constructions and relationships inherent in the arrangement of figures. The random arrangement of the figures does not fit into any of his mental constructs, and he cannot structure what he sees.
Market patterns on cryptocurrency charts compared to chess compositions include an excessive element of chaos so that they can be interpreted intuitively. Investors with intuition are able to achieve success with the help of” flair”, but this flair often leaves them. The intellect of the rational trader, on the contrary, is manifested in his ability to logically comprehend what is happening to him and to the reality around him and to make on this basis the simplest and most correct decision. Intuition is the ability of a person to penetrate into the essence of things not by reasoning or logical thinking, but by instantaneous, unconscious insight. This is the ability of a trader to “ see the market not with his mind but with his heart.” But, even with a highly developed intuition, you can not act on the market, using only it.This is the trap of intuitive trading — it is impossible to learn.

Fear of Taking Responsibility

What distinguishes successful traders from losers who lose money? First of all look at life. Most people are very passive.
If you ask people if they are happy with their lives, the answer is likely to be negative. On the question of who is to blame, I would say that the fault of the parents who have not given a good education, why now not get a good job; blame the employer who delays wages; blame the dollar, which is rising, then falling; to blame the President and the government who do not pay pensions, etc., In their troubles and problems most of the people blame anyone but themselves.
The same thing happens in the market because the exchange is a mirror of our life. Talk to the trader losing money, ask why he can’t make money in the market. He replied that the fault of the insiders, manipulators, blame the binary options broker too much Commission, to blame the neighbor who suggested the deal, which turned into a heavy loss. In other words, he himself would have been a millionaire long ago, but for a number of reasons, certainly beyond his control, until that happened.
If a person wants to achieve something-not just to lead a life, which are millions of ordinary people (every day to go to work, save five years for a car, twenty years for an apartment, etc.), and to live a full life, so that the financial issue went into the background, to work for fun, not for money, he needs to take responsibility for everything that happens in his life. A person needs to realize that the cause of everything that happens to him is himself.It is this view that allows you to succeed in life and in any business. And trade is no exception.
This is the way successful traders look at life. Once you realize that the cause of all your losses is yourself, and not some mythical manipulators, then the case will move forward.
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In the age of digital technologies, when artificial intelligence develops, computer technologies improve, mankind creates various tools to facilitate their own life and everyday life.
If we pay attention to trading, then this direction is actively developing, getting new and unique tools. Since any trader (beginner or experienced specialist) is subject to emotions and various psychological factors, there are tools such as trading bots.

Trading Bots/Robots

A trading robot (bot) is a program that has a certain algorithm. It buys or sells cryptocurrency assets, focusing on the situation in the market. The first trading robots appeared in 2012, and since then they have become more and more perfect. Currently, according to some estimates, 90% of short-term transactions are made either by bots or with their participation.
Bots are usually developed for specific trading platforms. Most cryptocurrency exchanges have an API, and they are generally positive about free auto trading within their platform.
In contrast to the positive attitude to exchange robots, exchanges often have a negative attitude to arbitration robots. On the rules of trade can be found in the official documentation of the exchange, and if there is no such information, the question can be asked directly to technical support.Some people wonder: is it possible to write your bot trader? This is not an easy option, which is suitable only for experienced programmers. After writing, bots are tested for a long time in the market, corrected numerous errors, corrected strategy.
A programmer can also write a bot based on someone else’s code. Some bots are open source, and anyone can find it on GitHub and modify it to fit their needs.
Buy a bot for trading cryptocurrency: there are inexpensive programs for trading (about $ 10), and the cost of more high-quality and complex exceeds more than $ 200 and even $ 1000. There is no maximum price limit for bots, top bots are written to order $ 1500 and more.
Users are usually offered a choice of several tariff plans for crypto bots, from economy to luxury. The inexpensive option includes the most basic trading algorithms, and the expensive one brings maximum profit and works on more complex algorithms. Arbitration bots are a more expensive exchange. Known cases when downloading the bot, people got on your computer virus-miner or virus-cipher, which encrypt all your personal files and demanded a ransom in bitcoin, usually in bitcoin. Naturally, after transferring the ransom to the specified wallet, no decryption of the files occurred.
Trading strategy of stock and arbitrage bots can be very simple, for example:- When the price of cryptocurrency decreases, you need to buy it.- If the price rises, it should be sold.- Or much more complicated. The algorithm can take into account historical data for the last time, indicators, navigate by signals. Quality bots analyze more than a hundred parameters when placing orders.
Some programs do not change the algorithm, and there are bots that can connect or configure additional parameters. This option is well suited for experienced traders who have their own preferences in the style of trading.
A standard bot can perform such actions:- To assess the market situation, to monitor the rate at a given period of time, to make a forecast. In manual trading, it can show signals to the trader.- Create buy or sell orders.- To report on the profit or loss received.
On the example of our IMBA-Exchange, we came to the conclusion that we also need to provide an opportunity for each trader to use bots so that they can be in a comfortable trading environment.
Our exchange specialists are developing their own bot for cryptocurrency trading, which will be an excellent and convenient addition to every trader who wants to eliminate the psychological factor and seeks to get stable earnings without losing personal time.
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IMBA-Exchange Metronix bot makes life easier for every investor.
For example, Ing. Michael Eder the CEO of IMBA-Exchange, who has 10 years of experience in trading and the last 3 years in cryptocurrency trading, has firmly decided for himself that in the current realities trading on the exchange simply needs bots:
Throughout the time that I have been trading, I can confidently say that today trading bots are necessary for all traders as the main tool. No matter how long you are in exchange trading, but the nature of the person is designed so that under the influence of psychological factors, market conditions, etc. You still make mistakes and, as a result, this leads to financial losses.Our Metronix Trading Bot will help to solve these problems and eliminate negative consequences. A bot is a tool; it has no feelings. He performs a specific task for a given program and performs it almost unmistakably. The task of the trader is to monitor the situation on the market and correctly, as well as at the right time to configure your bot.
Stay with us, in front of you will find many interesting and new.
Material developed by experts IMBA-Exchange
submitted by IMBA-Exchange to u/IMBA-Exchange [link] [comments]

Can Binbot Pro Make Profitable Trade?

In this Binbot Pro Review video you are going to get an authentic review on BinBot Pro Automated trading robot. All those information including features, deposit and withdrawal process, and live trading platform overview etc. will help you to familiarize with this trading robot.
BinBot Pro is a Binary Options Robot that offers automated trading to the users since its establishment in 2016. There are multiple robots available which will trade on your behalf. Customizing those robot in accordance with your requirement can be a great option for you. Each trading robot follows a different strategy and you can choose the one that you think will work the best for you.
submitted by Evileeina to u/Evileeina [link] [comments]

[Fo4] Enb menu not opening

started up the game, enb was working properly with enb mods i installed once save was loaded. but when i hit end or shift enter to open the menu; it didn't.
reinstalled new updated binaries and the enb mod (ink, in this case) and still no sign of the text at startup or the end menu afterwards
i can play like this but its still a problem if i ever want to go back to vanilla or get a differnt enb set
current load order:
GameMode=Fallout4
Fallout4.esm=1
DLCRobot.esm=1
DLCworkshop01.esm=1
DLCCoast.esm=1
DLCworkshop02.esm=1
DLCworkshop03.esm=1
DLCNukaWorld.esm=1
ArmorKeywords.esm=1
TrueStormsFO4.esm=1
Z_Architect.esm=1
SettlementKeywords.esm=1
Homemaker.esm=1
BerettaM9FS.esl=0
jags78_QuickDropMenu.esl=0
Robot Home Defence.esm=1
Unofficial Fallout 4 Patch.esp=1
PlasmaArsenal.esp=1
HUDFramework.esm=1
PANPC.esm=1
Knockout Framework.esm=1
Crecy.esp=0
dD - Screen Blood Duration Medium.esp=0
Z_Horizon_Loot_Respawn.esp=1
Z_Horizon.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-AmmoWeightless.esp=1
Z_Horizon_Loot_Respawn_DLC.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_All.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_Workshop02.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZY-DLCContraptions-Weightless.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ExplosivesSortTopWeightless.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-JunkWeightless+DEF_INV.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-MiscWeightless.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DEFUI.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-NotJunk.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-Perks.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_Nuka.esp=1
Armorsmith Extended.esp=1
clothingoverhaul.esp=1
Z_Architect_EnhancedSettlements.esp=1
Z_Architect_HomePlate.esp=1
Eli_Armour_Compendium.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_Automatron.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZY-DLCAutomatron-Weightless.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZY-DLCNukaWorld-Weightless.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_FarHarbor.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZY-DLCFarHarbor-Weightless.esp=1
More Power Armour Mods.esp=1
Consistent Power Armor Overhaul.esp=1
ClothingOverhaulSP_XB1_PC.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZZ-DLCArmorBySlotOverride.esp=1
PAMAP.esp=1
More Power Armour Mods - Automatron.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-AidWeightless.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_Workshop03.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZY-DLCVaultTec-Weightless.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZZ-DLCCosmeticsByTypeOverride.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ZZ-DLCWeaponsOverride.esp=1
ValdacilsItemSorting-ModsWeightless.esp=1
FO4Hotkeys.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-FarHarbor.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-GlowingSeaExtraRads.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-FarHarborExtraRads.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-EarlierSunsets.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-EarlierSunsetsFH.esp=1
DarkerNightsDetection.esp=1
Z_BlurRemoval.esp=1
BetterNightVision.esp=1
LooksMenu Customization Compendium.esp=1
AzarPonytailHairstyles.esp=1
The Eyes Of Beauty.esp=1
MoreOutfitVariations.esp=1
HorizonEliArmorPatch.esp=1
Eli_Armour_Compendium_and_MoreOutfitVariations_Patch.esp=1
Z_Horizon_DLC_Workshop01.esp=1
Z_Horizon_Timescale.esp=1
Z_Architect_EnhancedSettlements_DLC.esp=1
Z_Horizon_Patch_Homemaker.esp=0
Z_CameraAddon.esp=1
Z_Architect_Extras.esp=1
Z_Extras.esp=1
GITS_suit_by_OniNigma.esp=1
Edit_Hancock.esp=1
Crossbow.esp=1
Z_Horizon_Patch_Crossbow.esp=1
AnotherLife.esp=1
dD-Enhanced Blood Basic.esp=1
Minutemenoverhaul.esp=1
Better Vendor Stalls.esp=1
Northland Diggers New.esp=1
Faster Terminal Displays (20x).esp=1
EasyLockpicking.esp=1
EasyHacking.esp=1
More Where That Came From Diamond City.esp=1
Homemaker - Streetlights Use Passive Power.esp=1
Homemaker - Unlocked Institute Objects.esp=1
OWR_CraftableDecor.esp=0
OWR_CraftableDecor_CW.esp=0
OWR_CraftableDecor_SKPatch.esp=0
OWR.esp=1
OWR2_CraftableDecor.esp=0
OWR2_CraftableDecor_CW.esp=0
OWR2_CraftableDecor_CW_SKPatch.esp=0
OWR2_CraftableDecor_SKPatch.esp=0
OWR2.esp=1
OWR2_SKEPatch.esp=1
Quieter Settlements - Vanilla.esp=1
Quieter Settlements - Wasteland Workshop.esp=1
Quieter Settlements - Contraptions.esp=1
LongerPowerLines3x.esp=1
Vivid Fallout - All in One - Best Choice.esp=1
Perk Magazine Material Fix.esp=1
HeavyLaserRetrofit.esp=1
KelloggArm.esp=1
LaserBuff.esp=1
FO4LaserBolts - NormalOrange.esp=1
FO4LaserBolts - InstituteWhite.esp=1
FO4LaserBolts.esp=1
BrighterSettlementLights_ExtraBrightv1.1.esp=1
RedRocketMCS.esp=1
Ak5C.esp=1
WD_44.esp=1
EG7.esp=1
RSh-12.esp=1
CriticalHitsOutsideofVATS.esp=1
DYNAVISION.esp=1
Craftable Armor Size - Fix Material Requirements.esp=1
Craftable Armor Size.esp=1
Highwayman.esp=1
PA_Helmetless_Paint_Effect.esp=0
SettlementGarageSale.esp=1
Campsite.esp=1
TheMobileMechanic.esp=1
GasMaskUpgrades.esp=1
SurvivalOptions.esp=1
Horizon Survival Options.esp=1
DD_Prelude_273.esp=1
DD_AIO Test Mark 1.esp=1
The Space Marine.esp=1
Larger Shipments.esp=1
SlowTime.esp=1
CROSS_Cybernetics.esp=1
HorizonCrossPatch.esp=0
BasementLiving.esp=1
M14.esp=1
AutomatronSecuritron.esp=1
WeightlessAmmoFarHarbor.esp=1
3dscopes.esp=1
3dscopes-m14.esp=1
3dscopes-framework.esp=1
Zbrn_Horizon_3dscopes_AutoPatch_DLC_All.esp=1
mjp_PTRS41ATR.esp=1
VertibirdBeacon.esp=1
Killable Jun and Marcy Long.esp=1
Conquest.esp=1
RaiderPAChopShop.esp=1
ScrapDeadThings.esp=1
RadX100Perecent.esp=1
UniqueUniques.esp=1
RaiderOverhaul.esp=1
RA Restored.esp=1
MoreUniques.esp=1
Chainsaw.esp=1
Fusion Gun.esp=1
CROSS_PlasRail.esp=1
Mysterious BIG.esp=1
StG44.esp=1
ToggleFanning.esp=1
SolsSixThousandCaps.esp=1
FunctionalDisplays-Collectibles.esp=1
FunctionalDisplays.esp=1
FunctionalDisplays-AID-VIS-Weightless.esp=1
FunctionalDisplays-MISC-VIS-Weightless.esp=1
FunctionalDisplays-Patch-DLC-ALL-VIS-Weightless.esp=1
NoThirstyChemsVIS.esp=1
More Armor Slots - All Dlc.esp=1
SpetnazRifle.esp=0
Marine Armor Expanded.esp=1
Gum to Adhesive.esp=1
DiamondCityMoreSecurity.esp=1
PushAwayCompanions.esp=1
SalvageBeacons.esp=1
Pip-Boy Flashlight.esp=1
TrueStormsFO4-NukaWorld-FH-Compat.esp=1
DarkerNights.esp=1
Crafting Mastery.esp=1
PIP-Pad.esp=1
PIP-Pad_LMCC.esp=1
PIP-Pad_Pip-BoyFlashlight.esp=1
2pacSkimpy.esp=1
TransferSettlements.esp=1
P90.esp=1
P90NPC.esp=1
AK400.esp=1
G36Complex.esp=1
HaxRPG7.esp=1
KrissVector.esp=0
P99.esp=1
SkibsWeapons-REDUX.esp=1
Tec-9.esp=1
WattzLaserGun.esp=1
3dscopes-wattz.esp=1
TorchAndLantern.esp=1
Immersive HUD.esp=1
RedWaveReloaded.esp=1
dcc-weap-pocketsand.esp=0
subwayrunnnernodynamic.esp=1
CROSS_BreakActionLaser.esp=1
CROSS_CourserStrigidae.esp=1
CROSS_BrotherhoodRecon.esp=1
CourserCrusher.esp=1
Cyber-Light Hand Cannon.esp=0
strongheight.esp=1
CROSS_InstituteExpeditionarySuit.esp=1
CROSS_CryoLance.esp=1
CROSS_MojaveManhunter.esp=1
CROSS_CoA.esp=1
Live Action Handy.esp=0
Weapons of Fate.esp=1
1918bar.esp=0
CastleRestored.esp=1
Quad_Fusillade.esp=1
LootableCrates.esp=1
WastelandWorkshopPatch.esp=1
MilitarizedMinutemen.esp=1
Grounded.esp=0
BetterSettlers.esp=1
BS-Horizon-Patch.esp=1
BSMP-Horizon-Patch.esp=1
BetterSettlersCCAPack2.0.esp=1
BetterSettlersCleanFacePack.esp=1
BSCF-Horizon-Patch.esp=1
BetterSettlersMortalSoldiersPack.esp=1
BetterSettlersMostlyFemale.esp=1
BetterSettlersNoLollygagging.esp=1
Scrap Everything - Ultimate Edition.esp=1
C-SE24Ult-BetSet2-Patch.esp=1
Standalone Nuka Cola Manufacturing Workstation.esp=1
NoVanillaRadiantDLCLocations.esp=1
QuickTrade.esp=1
FallComplete.esp=1
SKKRESystemManager.esp=1
RichMerchants.esp=1
PiperCaitCurieDialogueOverhaul.esp=1
FCOM.esp=1
The Deadly Commonwealth Expansion.esp=1
CCOSaucySettlersReplacer.esp=1
DCVendorOverhaulAIO.esp=1
KillTips_by_tooun.esp=0
3DNPC_FO4Settler.esp=1
OutcastsAndRemnants.esp=1
1CAS_serviceRifle.esp=1
OAR_VIS_Patch.esp=1
Depravity.esp=1
CL Patch - Depravity VIS-G.esp=1
TrainBar.esp=1
CrimeTown.esp=1
NukaWorldReborn.esp=1
RU556.esp=1
SREP.esp=1
3dscopes-servicerifle.esp=0
DCGuard_Overhaul.esp=1
ellen.esp=1
LooksMenu.esp=1
FQ_NoMoreLODFlicker.esp=0
FN-FAL.esp=1
MP7.esp=1
uzi.esp=1
BerettaM9FS.esp=1
MP-412.esp=1
CBBE.esp=1
Stm_DiamondCityExpansion.esp=1
AmazingFollowerTweaks.esp=1
ProjectValkyrie.esp=1
AA FusionCityRising.esp=1
SexyHancockEveryHancockDepravity.esp=1
3DNPC_FO4.esp=1
3DNPC_FO4 AE.esp=1
MTs255.esp=1
submitted by DisGuyOvahEere to FalloutMods [link] [comments]

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Binary options trading robot - Binary options best ...

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